D e n t a l    F o l l i c l e               

             The        Monthly     E - Journal                  Vol - I I I      Number-    I X     February   2009


In this Issue:

  • Editorial

  • News

  • DentistryUnited @ Rank 3 on GOOGLE

  • Laughter - The best Medicine

  • Burning Mouth Syndrome - Part 1  - Dr.Gazala Danish . United Arab Emirates

  • Ctip2 gene - regulates the growth of Enamel - A finding that could change our practices

  • Tooth Erosion - A problem associated also with Dysmenorrhea

  • Teeth And Disease - By Stethsocope -Published in - The Argus ,Saturday 8th March 1924 under Construction

Editorial :

      Dear Fellow Dentist,

                            Ctip2 gene regulates the growth of enamel says a new study. For years we have been struggling to give a better replacement for the lost enamel.But this study could possibly throw light on Stem cell , Enamel regeneration , treatment for Amelogenisis Imperfecta and more.

                             I welcome all of our  125,000 plus readers across the globe to send in their report about an event or some research in their institution or publish cases. You could always sent me cases on the gmail address given below.

2. Add Info(at)  / dentistryunited(at) to your friends list in mail box settings

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Yours truly

Dr. Syed  Nabeel

Editor of Dental Follicle & WebMaster




          DentistryUnited Ranks 3 on Google  for key word "Dentistry"



Laughter - The Best Medicine :

A dentist related that he was being sued for a root canal that had failed.

I hope you got a good fee for it!

Actually, I did not charge anything for it. It was on my golf partner! Who is a lawyer. When asked why he would sue his friend, the lawyer said, Its only a law suit!


Burning Mouth Syndrome - Part 1


Dr.Gazala Danish BDS . MDS

Oral Diagnostician and Radiologist

United Arab Emirates


                      Stomatopyrosis , Stomatodynia , Burning Mouth Disease , Oral Dysesthesia ,Oral Galvanism , Glossodynia , Glossopyrosis , Painful Tongue , Burning Tongue , Hot Tongue Syndrome


Definition :

                            International Association for Study of Pain defines glossodynia as burning pain in the tongue, which most often involves the tip and lateral borders of glossal mucosa. Palate, lips and sometimes other buccal mucosa and is often associated with odd taste, dry mouth, uncomfortable bite or denture intolerance.

                         Burning sensation can be seen with a number of inflammatory and ulcerative conditions of the oral mucosa, but the term “Burning Mouth Syndrome” is reserved to a condition where there is oral burning with no detectable cause. There are no mucosal lesions or no known neurological disorders to explain the symptoms and there are no characteristic laboratory findings.


Etiology :

                                           The causes of burning sensation in the mouth are multifactorial and divided into three groups; local, systemic and psychogenic.

Local factors :

Dental treatment

                                              The onset of symptoms, as reported by patients related to previous dental treatment, may be as high as 65%. Conversely Nater et al. found it was not possible to correlate any signs that implicated dentures as a local etiologic agent. Gorsky et al. provided similar conclusions, corroborating that denture difficulties are an uncertain cause in the development of burning mouth syndrome.


Infectious agents


                                               Mucosal diseases like geographic tongue or benign migratory mucositis,


Allergic reactions

                                                Mucosal allergic reactions to allergens like methyl methacrylate monomer, nickle sulfate, cobalt chloride and mercury. Chemicals commonly found in denture materials were evaluated through epicutaneous patch testing in 53 patients who wore dentures by Kaaber et al. In this study 23% of the patients demonstrated an allergic reaction to the substance in denture and the allergy was determined the cause for burning sensation.

                                              Oral allergies to food containing sorbic acid (a preservative found in foods, ointments and creams), cinnamic aldehyde (a flavoring agent in foods and dentifrices), nicotinic acid (used as a rubefacient in toothpaste) and propylene glycol (a food additive) have been reported.

                                              A case where peanut sensitivity was a cause of burning mouth has been reported by Burnett et al. using the serum of 10 peanut allergic subjects, Burnett et al. identified 16 IgE-binding proteins in a raw peanut extract and 7 IgE-binding proteins in a roasted peanut extract by crossed radioimmunoelectrophoresis.


Dysfunction and Parafunction

                                                 Dysfunction and parafunction of the stomatognathic. Parafunctional activities resulting in excessive occlusal or denture wear has been shown in up to 61% of studied patients with burning mouth syndrome. Parafunctional activity of lip licking, lip sucking, lip pressure and mouth breathing are noted in patients with perioral symptoms.


Quantity and quality of saliva

                                                 Oral salivary quantity and quality have been investigated as causative factors in burning mouth syndrome. Irregularities in saliva metabolites as protein, potassium and phosphate concentrations between patients with burning mouth syndrome and control patients have been suggested as causative factors.

Radiation therapy, systemic disease and pharmacotherapeutic agents have been shown to diminish salivary flow rates and may be associated with increased incidences of burning mouth syndrome symptoms.


Neural mechanisms

                                    Burning mouth symptoms may reflect a neuropathic condition possibly involving the central or peripheral nervous system or both. Nerve injury or dysfunction resulting from oral, facial or systemic trauma from medical conditions might be the cause of burning sensations. The constant burning may indicate a tonic efflux from nociceptive primary afferents to the brain. This may be evident in inflammatory conditions or regional nerve trauma (neuroma). Excitatory afferent input could evoke a burning sensation with limited sensory changes such as touch or thermal perception. Hence, the use of topical local anesthetic in the burning oro-facial region did not interrupt the burning pattern.

                                                                                                    To Be Continued  -








Ctip2 gene - regulates the growth of Enamel - A finding that could change our practices

                                                   Ctip2 plays a role in immune response, as well as Dermatological and Nervous development was already known and its role in enamel growth was recently found in the University Of Oregon , where they bred mice which lacked the Ctip2 gene found that the mice lacked Enamel.For years scientists have been trying to grow ameloblasts. This finding may help in future for possibly replacement of lost Enamel.This finding has laid the foundation for the future stem cell research in Enamel growth.

Professor Chrissa Kioussi, professor of Pharmacology , the  author of the study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences .





Tooth Erosion - A problem associated also with Dysmenorrhea


             The one etiology of the tooth erosion could be dysmenorrhea says Journal of ADG nov/dec 2008 issue . Though bulimea was one classical reason , vomiting resulting from dysmenorrhea which is involuntary resulting from the contractions in the uterus or the abdominal wall . The erosion pattern in bulimia is restricted to the maxillary anterior teeth, as the patient controls the direction of force whereas in vomiting resulting from dysmenorrhea most of the teeth could get effected. Bulimia patients are normally in their 20's and 30's whereas the patients suffering from erosion due to dysmenorrhea could get aware of the enamel erosion only in their 5th or 6th decade of life.

                      Mohamed Bassiouny, DMD, MSc, PhD is the author of the study.


Teeth And Disease - By Stethsocope -Published in  - The Argus ,Saturday 8th March 1924

Mouth is the mirror of health was mostly coined later. In the above article published in 1924 - shows the interest of the media in promoting the importance of good oral hygiene.