A patient sits in the dental chair
with severely fractured front teeth. After discussing how they will be
restored and what the fee would be the patient says, " Before we begin, Doc,
I gotta know: Will I be able to play the trumpet when you are finished? "
The dentist replies " Sure you will! "
The patient replies " Great, I couldn't play a note before! "
Getting down to Roots of Dentistry
Egypt has been a land of contribution to the human civilization from 365
days calender to massive public projetcs and now evidence suggets the Roots
of dentistry to be in Egypt.Archelologisits have found the tombs of three
The pictorial letters also spell out the names of the
chief dentist — "Iy Mry, and
assistants Kem Msw and Sekhem Ka Hawass"in SAQQARA, Egypt. The tombs were
Curse protected for 4,200-years--warngin :"Violate these tombs and you
will be eaten by a crocodile and a snake".
Their location near the Step Pyramid of King Djoser —
believed to be Egypt's oldest pyramid — indicate the respect accorded
dentists by Egypt's ancient kings, who "cared about the treatment of their
COENZYME Q10: ANTIOXIDANT AS USEFUL TREATMENT ADJUNCT:
REVIEW: Part I
by- Dr.Vinayak Joshi
Our body as an inbuilt defense mechanism, one of which is the defense
against oxidative damage induced by the free radicals and/or reactive oxygen
species. The in vivo anti oxidant defense systems are mainly of three kinds:
antioxidants, e.g.: Catalase, Glutathione peroxidase, S- transferase,
Transferrin, albumin, haptoglobin, ceruloplasmin, Superoxide dismutase,
b) Radical scavengers
E.g: Ubiquinol ( co-enzyme 10), vit A, vit E, carotenoids, uric acid,
ascorbic acid, albumin, bilirubin.
c) Repair and de novo
enzymes E.g: DNA repair enzymes, Protease, Transferase, Lipase.
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is an essential component of the mitochondria - the
energy producing unit of the cells of our body. CoQ10 is involved in the
manufacture of ATP, the energy currency of all body processes.
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is
a vitamin-like substance, vital in the production of energy. It is also
called as ubiquinone since it is found in every cell. CoQ10 was first
isolated from beef heart mitochondria by Dr. Frederick Crane of Wisconsin,
U.S.A., in 1957
CoQ10 (2, 3-dimethoxy-5methylbenzoquione) is chemically classified as a
fat-soluble quinone ring attached to 10 isoprene side units, structurally
similar to vitamin K.
The primary action of CoQ10 is as a cofactor in the electron-transport
chain. It is found in relatively high concentration in cells with high
energy requirements such as heart, liver, muscle, and pancreas. Normal blood
levels range from 0.7 - 1.0micro g/mL and the total body content is
estimated to be 0.5 - 1.5g.
CoQ10 is synthesized in
human cell in an eight-step pathway, from amino acid tyrosine, and vitamins
such as folic acid, niacin, riboflavin, and pyridoxine.
CoQ10 are well absorbed by oral supplementation a peak plasma levels are
attained within 5 - 10 hours, with absorption being dependent on the fat
presence in the gastrointestinal tract. The elimination half-life of the
parent compound is approximately 34 hours; excretion is primarily through
the biliary tract and over 60% of the oral dose is recovered in the feces.
Mechanism of Action:
Chain (ETC) to Produce ATP:
CoQ10, found in the
inner mitochondrial membrane, is the cofactor for at least three
mitochondrial enzymes that play a vital role in oxidative phosphorylation.
Each pair of electrons processed by the ETC must interact with CoQ10, which
is considered the rate-limiting constituent of the mitochondrial respiratory
chain. Therefore; CoQ10 plays a essential role in ATP production.
CoQ10 acts to inhibit
lipid and protein peroxidation and scavenges free radicals. It undergoes
constant oxidation reduction recycling. In addition CoQ10 works
synergistically with vitamin E, regenerating its active form, tocopherol, in
the same synergistic mechanism as with vitamin C. CoQ10 is the only known
naturally occurring lipid-soluble antioxidant that can be regenerated to its
active form in the body.
Stabilization and Fluidity:
stabilizing property of Coq10 has been postulated to involve the
phospholipid-protein interactions that increases prostaglandin (especially
prostacyclin) metabolism. it is thought that CoQ10 stabilizes myocardial
calcium-dependent ion channels and prevents the depletion of metabolites
essential for ATP synthesis. CoQ10 also decreases blood viscosity, and
improves blood flow to cardiac muscle in patients with ischemic heart
Exogenously CoQ10 are
found in fish, fish oil, organ meats and germ of whole grains. The average
diet is estimated to provide approximately 10mg/day of CoQ10.
CoQ10 is produced by the fermentation of beets and sugar cane, using special
strains of yeast. Dosage forms currently available include powder-filled
capsules, powder-based tablets, soft gel capsules, fully solubilized soft
gel capsules, chewable wafers, intravenous solution, and intra-oral spray.
Doses of 30-60 mg/day
BID are generally recommended to prevent CoQ10 deficiency and to maintain
normal serum concentrations of 0.7 -1.0µg/mL. For treatment of Chronic heart
disease therapeutic doses of 100 -200mg/day are advocated and 90 -390mg/day
for treatment of breast cancer. Divided doses are recommended to minimize
adverse affects when doses exceed 100mg/day. Maximum absorption of CoQ10 can
be achieved if taken with meals that contain fat.
100 – 200 mg
150 – 200 mg
100 – 200 mg
100 – 200 mg
Adverse effects with use of Coq10 have been minor and include epigastric
discomfort, appetite suppression, nausea and diarrhea. These affects are
dose related and are minimized with dose reduction or dose division. There
is elevated serum LDH and SGOT levels with doses exceeding 300mg/day, but
does not result in hepatotoxicity.
anomaly can be misdiagnosed
When dentists see an unusual shadowy area of bone loss on an X-ray of the
lower jawbone, they may be concerned and order a biopsy.
In dental parlance, this strange formation may represent an "anterior
variant of the mandibular lingual bone depression," a condition that may
look serious, but actually is a harmless bone depression, a rare congenital
anomaly that needs no further treatment.
"It's important to know that it's a benign developmental condition," said
Lynn Solomon, first author on a paper discussing this "diagnostic challenge"
in the September-October issue of General Dentistry